Main Article Content

Abstract

Used cooking oil has the potential as biodiesel so that it can reduce environmental pollution. Transesterification of triglycerides in used cooking oil with an alcohol to form methyl esters of fatty acids or biodiesel and glycerol. The type of catalyst is one of the determinants of the transesterification reaction and coal fly ash has the potential to be used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of the oil-methanol ratio and the time of the transesterification of used cooking oil to the yield of biodiesel produced using an alkali-activated fly ash catalyst. Transesterification is carried out at 60 °C, the stirring speed is 700 rpm, and the amount of catalyst load is 4%. The result, the highest yield of biodiesel reached almost 89%. This biodiesel consists of 48.86% methyl oleate and 33.86% methyl palmitate and has a density that meets the Indonesian National Standard, which is 0.85 - 0.90 g/cm3. Finally, the BET test on the fly ash catalyst shows a catalyst surface area of ​​around 104.106 m2/g.

Keywords

Transesterification Biodiesel Heterogeneous catalysts Fly ash

Article Details

How to Cite
Ayu, D., Aulyana, R., Astuti, E. W., Kusmiyati, K., & Hidayati, N. (2019). Catalytic Transesterification of Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel: Effect of Oil-Methanol Molar Ratio and Reaction Time. Automotive Experiences, 2(3), 73-77. https://doi.org/10.31603/ae.v2i3.2991

References

  1. [1] APROBI, “Mandatori B20 Bantu Negara Hemat Devisa,” Buletin Bioenergi, pp. 4–5, 2016.
  2. [2] A. Gashaw, T. Getachew, and A. Teshita, “A Review on Biodiesel Production as Alternative Fuel,” Journal of Forest product & Industries, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 80–85, 2015.
  3. [3] M. F. Elkady, A. Zaatout, and O. Balbaa, “Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2015, pp. 1–9, 2015.
  4. [4] K. A. Zahan, “Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil, Its By-Products, and Mill Effluent: A Review,” Energies, vol. 11, pp. 1–25, 2018.
  5. [5] H. M. Rachimoellah, D. A. Resti, A. Zibbeni, and I. W. Susila, “Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Avocado (Persea gratissima) Seed Oil Using Base Catalyst,” Jurnal Teknik Mesin, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 2009.
  6. [6] F. Ullah, L. Dong, A. Bano, Q. Peng, and J. Huang, “Current advances in catalysis toward sustainable biodiesel production,” Journal of the Energy Institute, pp. 1–11, 2015.
  7. [7] A. Alegría and J. Cuellar, “Esterification of oleic acid for biodiesel production catalyzed by 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 179, pp. 530–541, 2015.
  8. [8] Q. Quan et al., “Nano La 2 O 3 as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of Jatropha curcas L . oil,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry , pp. 1–8, 2015.
  9. [9] S. R. Pratap, S. Z. M. Shamshuddin, N. Thimmaraju, M. Shyamsundar, and S. S. Reena, “Kinetics of transesterification of Madhuca Indica oil over modified zeolites : biodiesel synthesis,” Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 271–278, 2015.
  10. [10] K. H. Kay and S. M. Yasir, “Biodiesel Production from Low Quality Crude Jatropha Oil Using Heterogeneous Catalyst,” APCBEE Procedia, vol. 3, no. May, pp. 23–27, 2012.
  11. [11] W. Xie and L. Zhao, “Heterogeneous CaO-MoO3-SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from soybean oil,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 79, pp. 34–42, 2014.
  12. [12] W. W. S. Ho, H. K. Ng, S. Gan, and S. H. Tan, “Evaluation of palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide as a heterogeneous base catalyst in biodiesel synthesis from crude palm oil,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 88, pp. 1167–1178, 2014.
  13. [13] N. A. Mazumder and R. Rano, “An efficient solid base catalyst from coal combustion fly ash for green synthesis of dibenzylideneacetone,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 29, pp. 359–365, 2015.
  14. [14] A. Zakaria, W. Djasmasari, and Y. Purwamargapratala, “Karakterisasi Zeolit Sintetis dari Abu Terbang Batu Bara Menggunakan Difraksi Sinar - X,” in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hamburan Neutron dan Sinar-X ke 8, 2011, pp. 41–44.
  15. [15] X. Liu, H. He, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, and X. Piao, “Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst,” Fuel, 2008, vol. 87, pp. 216–221, 2008.
  16. [16] Wahyudin, N. Purwanti, Joelianingsih, and H. Nabetani, “The Development of Heterogeneous Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Process for Biodiesel Production: A Review,” Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 2018.