Main Article Content
Anthraquinones are phenolic compounds known best for their laxative activity. Rheum australe D. Don (Indian rhubarb, Polygonaceae) is a prominent medicinal plant with anthraquinones as the bioactive compounds, among a few others. The online literature search was carried out to collect data on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of anthraquinones, particularly those isolated from R. australe. Anthraquinones are commonly found in the genera of Rheum, Senna, Aloe, Frangula, and Rubia, which can be quantitatively and qualitatively determined using both conventional and advanced analytical methods. The anthraquinones of R. australe were found in free and glycosidic forms, which were best extracted by the microwave-assisted extraction method. Various chromatographic techniques were commonly conducted to isolate the pure compounds. In addition to its laxative activity, anthraquinones of R. australe also showed potential antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant properties.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Arvindekar, A., More, T., Payghan, P. V, Laddha, K., Ghoshal, N., & Arvindekar, A. (2015). Evaluation of anti-diabetic and alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of anthraquinones from Rheum emodi. Food Function, 6(8), 2693–2700. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fo00519a
- Arvindekar, A. U., Pereira, G. R., & Laddha, K. S. (2016). An efficient microwave-assisted extraction of anthraquinones from Rheum emodi: Optimisation using RSM, UV and HPLC analysis and antioxidant studies. Industrial Crops and Products, 83, 587–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.12.066
- Arvindekar, Aditya U., Pereira, G. R., & Laddha, K. S. (2015). Assessment of conventional and novel extraction techniques on extraction efficiency of five anthraquinones from Rheum emodi. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(10), 6574–6582. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1814-3
- Bartnik, M., & Facey, P. C. (2016). Glycosides. In S. Badal & R. Delgoda (Eds.), Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategy (pp. 101–161). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802104-0.00008-1
- Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles of Herbal Pharmacology. In Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine (2nd ed., pp. 17–82). Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone.
- Duval, J., Pecher, V., Poujol, M., & Lesellier, E. (2016). Research advances for the extraction, analysis and uses of anthraquinones: A review. Industrial Crops and Products, 94, 812–833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.09.056
- Gupta, R. K., Bajracharya, G. B., & Jha, R. N. (2014). Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, antioxidant capacity and phytochemicals of Rheum australe rhizomes of Nepal. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(6), 125–128.
- Mishra, S. K., Tiwari, S., Shrivastava, A., Srivastava, S., Boudh, G. K., Chourasia, S. K., … Lakshmi, V. (2014). Antidyslipidemic effect and antioxidant activity of anthraquinone derivatives from Rheum emodi rhizomes in dyslipidemic rats. Journal of Natural Medicines, 68(2), 363–371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-013-0810-z
- Pandith, S. A., Dar, R. A., Lattoo, S. K., Shah, M. A., & Reshi, Z. A. (2018). Rheum australe, an endangered high-value medicinal herb of north western himalayas: a review of its botany, ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytochemistry Reviews, 17(3), 573–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-018-9551-7
- Pandith, S. A., Hussain, A., Bhat, W. W., Dhar, N., Qazi, A. K., Rana, S., … Lattoo, S. K. (2014). Evaluation of anthraquinones from Himalayan rhubarb (Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn.) as antiproliferative agents. South African Journal of Botany, 95, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2014.07.012
- Rehman, H., Begum, W., Anjum, F., Tabasum, H., & Zahid, S. (2015). Effect of rhubarb (Rheum emodi) in primary dysmenorrhoea: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 12(1), 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2014-0004.
- Rokaya, M. B., Münzbergová, Z., Timsina, B., & Bhattarai, K. R. (2012). Rheum australe D. Don: A review of its botany, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(3), 761–774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.048
- Singh, S. S., Pandey, S. C., Singh, R., & Agarwal, S. K. (2005). 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives from rhizomes of Rheum emodi Wall. Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, 44(7), 1494–1496.
- Tripathi, B., Bhatia, R., Pandey, A., Gaur, J., Chawala, G., Walia, S., … Attri, P. (2014). Potential Antioxidant Anthraquinones Isolated from Rheum emodi Showing Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of Chemistry, 2014, Article ID 652526. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/652526
- Ye, B.-G., Feng, Y., & Wang, S. (2014). Scientific evaluation of the acute toxicity and 13-week subchronic toxicity of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts in Sprague Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 66, 278–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.051
- Zargar, B. A., Masoodi, M. H., Ahmed, B., & Ganie, S. A. (2011). Phytoconstituents and therapeutic uses of Rheum emodi wall. ex Meissn. Food Chemistry, 128(3), 585–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.083